Hirotaka Takeuchi and Ikujiro Nonaka introduced the term ‘Scrum’ in the context of product development in their article, ‘The New New Product Development Game’. By definition, Scrum is a project development framework that highlights teamwork, collective accountability, transparency and iterative progress towards a defined goal.
In the contemporary competitive environment, stakeholders are vying for speed to market, excellent product quality, and a quicker ROI. In addition, frequently changing business requirements need to be addressed continuously. This is where Scrum fits in. In Scrum, tasks are divided into shorter fixed timeframes of release cycles with adjustable scope to address frequently changing development needs. Scrum is unlike the traditional Waterfall Model that follows a step by step process to get a full featured product– a major drawback to which is that any changes added later in the SDLC would involve revisiting the earlier phases, and redoing the changes. Scrum saves this effort.
The Scrum approach is open to changes and welcomes change as long as they enhance customer experience. The Scrum dev team starts working with the product owner from early on to determine the minimum viable product or MVP, from which point on the incremental development proceeds till the full set of requirements is delivered. Scrum teams normally consist of five to seven members, and work is done in ‘Sprints’ with predefined timelines, resulting in a fully tested product with additional functionality.
The three key roles in any Scrum Team are:
Product Owner: The key stakeholder who is actively engaged with the Scrum team, and is business savvy with a clear understanding of what the product functionality should be. The product owner ensures that the expectations for the end product have been communicated and agreed upon, and can prioritize user stories for the product as required, along with making sure that any new requirements are not assigned during the Sprint.
The Scrum Master: The Champion of the Scrum ensuring that the Scrum team is productive and progressive. They may take up any role in the team to finish the task required to move the Sprint forward, and in case of any obstructions, Scrum Master follows up and resolves the issue. They also organize sprint planning and stand-up meetings, reviews, retrospectives to keep the sprint moving.
Developer/Tester: Sprint teams consist of a mix of competencies working together, and the roles may rotate Sprint by Sprint. Testers, Developers, Database people, Support- all work in close collaboration to develop and implement the defined features and there are no set rules or defined job descriptions, rather it depends on what the team agrees upon. Overall, it’s a ‘whole-team’ responsibility to deliver the working software at the end of the sprint.
Let’s understand the entire Scrum Process in brief along with where the above roles come into the picture.
The Scrum Process
- The Product Owner creates a Product Backlog.
- Sprint Planning takes place and based on the priority, the team imports items from the Product Backlog to the Sprint Backlog, and brainstorms on how to implement it.
- Daily Scrum meetings are conducted to assess the progress and share the impediments.
- At the end of each Sprint, delivery teams ensure the work is in a potentially shippable state.
- Scrum Master ensures that Sprint is moving forward, tasks are being completed in time, and impediments removed.
- Sprint ends with a Sprint Review, and a Sprint Retrospective to identify what went wrong and what went right.
- For the next Sprint, the team pulls another prioritized chunk from the Product Backlog and begins working.
The cycle is iterative and whenever the project ends, Scrum ensures that the most significant work has been completed. So you get a viable product at a lower cost in a short time span.
Let us check the benefits that Scrum offers to businesses.
Benefits of Scrum
Overall, the Scrum Framework offers the following benefits:
Quick Deliverables: The involvement of the Product Owner to progressively elaborate the requirements and to set priorities along with providing real time clarification reduces the time to market. ‘High value and risk’ requirements can be delivered before the ‘low value and risk’ requirements, with every Sprint resulting in a working product that is potentially shippable.
Increased ROI: Daily meetings, regular monitoring, continuously imbibing market changes, and shorter predefined release cycles- all lead to increased ROI. Regular stakeholder feedback enables early corrections sparing a lot of time and money. Additionally, automation and up-front testing results in lower wastage and faster deployment, and thus a better ROI. Finally, if the product has to fail, it fails faster.
Superior Quality: Regular inspection of the working product, with daily testing and Product Owner feedback in the development process, allows for early visibility of the quality issues and necessary adjustments. Sprint reviews and retrospectives allow for continuous improvement and thus a superior end product.
Increased Collaboration and Ownership:The complete team works together on the entire project, and decisions are made in consensus. Sprint Planning meetings help self-organizing cross-functional teams to set their pace and organize their work around the given business priorities, and further, daily Scrum meetings, Sprint reviews and retrospectives enhance team spirit and collaboration.
Enhanced Customer Satisfaction: Scrum enables organizations to change the project and the deliverables at any point in time, resulting in the most apt release. Scrum thus embraces changing customer requirements leading to increased customer satisfaction.
Better Project Control: Regular feedback, the ability to address changing market demands, Sprint reviews and daily meetings offer ample opportunities to keep the project under control, and make timely amends.
Transparency: Expectations are effectively met with Scrum as the key stakeholders are actively involved throughout the project. Continuous inspection and adaptation, and total transparency are the real benefits of Scrum.
Given these benefits, it would not be an overstatement to say that if an organization adopts Scrum in its true sense, everyone involved will be able to discover the real benefits Scrum brings along.
At Astegic, we have developed a Scrum framework specifically crafted for QA and Testing stages of product development- SDEFT (Scrum Driven Engagement Framework for Testing). SDEFT introduces a set of best practices that create a flexible framework allowing consistent and predictable result delivery, resolving the critical client concerns of quality, agility, cost effectiveness, quicker ROI and speed to market.